Jenn

Monday, November 20, 2006

Research Proposal

Southwest Airlines is opening new doors for Dallas’ Love Field Airport

Southwest Airlines in Love Field will be offering more convenient services: 25 more one-way destinations. By doing this, the airline, which is based in Dallas, expects to increase their customers as well as their revenue.

Southwest Airlines was not able to offer this service before because of the 1979 Wright Amendment. This amendment put a ban on long-haul flights from Love Field. In the past, Southwest has been able to fly its passengers to long-haul destinations through connecting flights.

Southwest also plans to lower their fares and start off their new destinations with $99 fares. The airline’s customer base has been declining over the past years and they were losing customers to other airlines such as American Airlines. By adding more one-stop destinations and lowering fares, Southwest hopes gain more customers and compete against Fort-Worth based American Airlines as the top airline.

One thing to question is how American Airlines is going to react to this. The airline has already started the competition by lowering their fares and making some connecting flight become one-stop direct flights instead. However, once Southwest gets further into their new plan, American might lose a lot of its customers.

Another thing to question is employee increase. Southwest will have to hire more employees to work the more flights that are scheduled. They will also need more aircrafts.
There is also the issue of money. Southwest is expecting to increase their revenue by no less than $50 million. However, before this goal is reached, Southwest has to spend money on new employees and aircrafts.

Monday, September 11, 2006

What is Public Relations?

I asked several people what they thought Public Relations actually was. I asked my roomates, Desi, Taylor and Katie. Desi tried to explain her opinion on what she thought this meant and said that it was something in communications, but not sure what. Taylor said PR was talking to the public through speeches and communtication. Katie who said that she took a communications class her Freshman year, agreed with Taylor and also added that PR also connects the people to the media.

Thursday, June 01, 2006

My Future Career

I was just thinking about what it is exactly that I want to do when I graduate. Since I will be a senior in the fall, I am getting closer to graduating so i need to have an idea of what I want to do. i think i want to go into either PR and work with night life in downtown dallas or even new york, or work for a magazine and write about night life. I obviously want to do something in the night life area. this is because I love to be social, go out and have a good time, I am also really good with meeting new people and talking to them about anything. i know it will take me a while to get there, i will have to start at the bottom, but someday that is what I plan to do.

Final Project

Title: Gender Roles in Advertisement



Summary of your findings:


For this project, I decided to look at how women are depicted in magazine ads. I based my study on a previous research study that was done by Niaz Ahmed entitled: Mass-Mediated Stereotyping in the 1990's. In this study, Ahmed compared gender roles in advertisments of the U.S. to those in India.

For his methodology, he stated it as, "A systematic quantitative content analysis method was utilized (with semi-otic analysis) to analyze and compare the linguistic as well as visual content ofa sample of U.S. and Indian national advertising campaigns for consumer prod-ucts carried out in the print media," (Ahmed, 4). For this study, Ahmed took a sample of around 300 ads from two major magazined from each country. He took one of each magazine for every month from January 1993 to December 1994. He then took each ad and compared them to one another and also compared them to the codes of stereotypes.

""A very high exploitation ad (a) focuses on the physical attributes of women's bodies; female models bend or curve their bodies or body parts; recline on beds, sofa or floor (possibly with subtle sexual innuendo); camera focuses and exhibits specific attributes of the body (e.g., a female torso, legs); women's bodies are presented as a sight to be looked at; (b) women are scantily clad/wearing skimpy sexy clothing while men are fully clothed; (c) female models are shown touching themselves (their neck, shoulder, hair) with the tips of their fingers while gazing in a mirror or into the camera with seductive eyes; (d) women are portrayed as the object of explicit male gaze," (Ahmed, p. 6)."

These codes stated above helped Ahmed to familiarize himself with how to classify an ad and what stereotype it might be picturing. As for his results, Ahmed found there to be a significant difference of the ads between each country. He found that India had more ads depicting women in a more stereotypical light than the ads from the U.S. Out of all the ads from India that he studied, 69% were highly stereotypical, while only 33% of U.S. ads were stereotyped.

Your Methodology and Corpus

I decided to do a study similar to this but not as detailed. I will also only compare ads within the U.S. rather than comparing two countries. I am going to look at tv ads and compare the commercials that uses the woman role as a sex symbol. I will watch 2 different channels, one show from each, and compare the commercials that I see.

My Results:

After sitting and watching "Laguna Beach" on MTV and then watching "Full House" on the Family Channel, I found a couple of interesting things. First, just as i suspected, MTV had more commercials showing woman dressed partially clad/almost nude. I counted 8 out of around 10 commercials to have a woman or women featured as sex symbols to men. One commerical in particular was for a liquor and showed a woman, dressed in very little, ordering a drink from the male bartender and then taking the ice cub and sucking on it seductively right in front of him. As for the family channel, I did not see as many commercials giving out this female stereotype as MTV, but I was surprised to find that there were some commercials that did feature women as sex symbols. I counted there to be 4 out of the 10 that I saw to have showed a woman as an attractive object to men. Needless to say these 4 out of the 10 did not show as much skin or sex as the ads on MTV, most just had females dressed in short skirts, or in the shower shaving, but it was still too much to have kids under the age of 10 watching. Most of the commercials on the Family channel that were suggestive were for lotions and other shower product commercials where they suggest sex as the underlying theme.

Results from my Study: (10 commercials each)

MTV: Demure- 2

Suggestive- 2

Partially Clad- 4

Nude- 2

FAMILY: Demure- 6

Suggestive- 3

Partially Clad- 1

Nude- 0

Commercials:
Disorono Liquor
Bud Light
Smirnoff Ice
Volkswagon
Mazda
Anna Nicole Smith (TrimSpa)
Sprite
Gurber's Baby
Cheerios
Mercedes
Sprite
Pet Smart
Las Vegas
Trojan Condoms
Target
Volkswagon
Brittany Spears Perfume: Curious
Corona
Venus Razor
St. Ives Lotion




The only ad that were demure on MTV were car commercials, one was for volkswagon and the other for mazda. However, they did still show the female stereotype, the man was driving in both of the commercials. This just shows the stereotype that women are always in the background and the male always has the progressive role.

My Sources:
Ahmed, Niaz. Mass Mediated Stereotyping in the 1990's. Journal of Information Ethics; Spring 1998.
http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=cache:y2sXJkNKG4wJ:www.mcfarlandpub.com/JIE/Images/article-ahmed.pdf+female+and+male+portrayals+in+advertisements:+a+re-examination


last day of class

Today was the last day of class and I have to admit i feel relieved. However, i really did enjoy taking this class. it really has opened my eyes to the different stereotypes that are all around me, be it on tv, in movies, or in magazine ads. When i flip through a magazine or watch tv i really focus on the hidden messages that are being sent out through ads and shows.

newspaper vs tv

one thing that i have noticed ever since taking this class is that tv news seems to be alot more played out and phoney than a newspaper article. It does seem like news programs are not telling you the actual truth, but rather just what they think we want to hear.

Wednesday, May 31, 2006

commercials

Ont thing that I noticed while watching tv was the beer commercials and the stereotypes they give off. Mostly all of them feature men drinking the beer or women serving it. I never once saw a woman or a group of women sitting around drinking beer, except for a michelob ultra commercial where it shows the woman drinking it. But that is because Michelob ultra is known for being a girl beer. Any guy that I have ever asked will say that they would never drink an ultra, its "too feminine". I personally drink miller light and bud light, but I am not a boy. And i know tons of other girls who drink the same, so why cant they have a woman or women sitting around and drinking a cold coors while talking about guys?

Golden Girls

I was watching tv the other day and The Golden Girls came on. I hadnt seen that show in forever so i decided to watch it because nothing else was on. But i found something interesting while watching it, the maid that they hired to clean their house and do the dishes was an African American woman. I thought that this was interesting because since I have started taking this class I have been more aware of stereotypes that I see in the media.

Monday, May 29, 2006

Crash

For this assignment, I watched the movie Crash. This film has a very diverse cast and is basically about how different races and genders are stereotyped. The first scene even opens with a stereotype. There is a wreck and it is caused by an Asian woman who cannot speak English well. This obviously gives the woman a stereotype that Asians cannot drive or talk. This is what the entire movie is about.
Crash consists of a huge cast, most are A-list actors. There are five that I want to discuss more in detail. First there is Sandra Bullock, who is a stiff white housewife to a public figure. Her character is snobby and cold and she acts superior to those of different races. The next two characters I will discuss are Don Cheadle and Jennifer Esposito, who are both detectives and a couple. Cheadle is African American and Espositio is Hispanic. These characters are romantically involved and shows what an interracial couple is like. Matt Dillon plays a racial white cop. One scene he sexually harasses a black woman. This gives off the stereotype that all white male police officers are racist and sexist jerks. The rapper/actor Ludacris plays a young black man who is extrememly racist aganist the white race. The whole movie he talks about the stereotypes of white people and the stereotypes that white people give African Americans.
I really liked this movie because of the stereotypes. It almost seems like it makes fun of how we view each other and other races. It really made me think that there are people out there that are like some of the characters in this movie. I also liked it because each character seemed to be connected to all the other characters in some shape or form.

Wednesday, May 24, 2006

Mini Case Study

Title: Masculinity in the Media

Two-sentence summary of your findings:

I found an online journal by Steve Craig in which he did a case study on how men are viewed in the media. He did a case study on the roles of men in the media and the way people have viewed them as the typical masculine, muscular and tough male.

Summary of the previous study:

He found the sex-role theory which states that consumers simply mirror images of men and women they see in the media. This means that if the media wants consumers to see a product or character as masculine, then they have to have the male role be as masculine as possible. Craig took a look at the reproduction of masculinity in beer commercials, heavy metal music, TV sitcoms, TV media, comics and in advertising. He also addressed the different kinds of masculinity such as race, class, and age. However, he did not get that far in these issues because he dealt mostly with mainstream media and how males are portrayed in it.

Its most important foundation literature and how it relates to your own project:

The main book that this case study is based on is Men, Masculinity and the Media by Ki Namaste. In this book the author does research in a various number of media. Craig based his study on this book, and I am basing my study on Craig's case.

Your corpus and methodology:

For my case study, I decided to continue to research masculinity in the media, but this time I will look at the gay male role in TV sitcoms as opposed to just the straight masculine male. Craig did a little bit of research on the gay male role in the media, but he mainly focused on the straight males. Therefore I am going to go further and look up how many more sitcoms there have been on TV from 2005-present that feature or have featured a gay character and compare that number to how many gay characters there have been in past years. Your findings and

Conclusions:
On the internet, I looked up to see how many TV programs on just the broadcast network featured at least one gay character. I found that there are 14 different programs that feature a total of 16 gay characters. This number was counted in 2005 and went up from 11 gay characters in the 2004 season. I then researched the number of males, females, and different races within the 16 characters. I found that there are 13 males and only 3 females. There are 13 white, 1 African American, 1 Latino, and 1 Asian. This research showed me that there is not only an increase in gay characters on TV every year, but that there is a big difference between the number of male and female characters and the number of white gays compared to the other races. So in comparison to the previous study where Craig only studied the masculinity of males in the media and how they are portrayed, I did research on the number of men that are the opposite of masculinity.

Wednesday, May 17, 2006

POWs

I looked up Jessica Lynch and Shoshanna Johnson online and found a couple of differences between the two POWs. I went to CNN.com and typed in both of their names, one at a time, and found that both had quite a few news stories. However, I found that Lynch had some more coverage than Johnson. While they both had alot of media, Lynch was in Time magazine as well, Johnson was not. I realized that together, both of them had more coverage than any male POW. I think this is because they are both female and not alot of females go to war and get put in prison. Male soldiers are caught all the time but the media never seems to make as big a deal about them. I also found a poem that was written about Johnson, it was on an African American based website.